The first step in treating Male Infertility is to conduct a detailed semen analysis. If the sperm count is nil (Azoospermia) in semen, then the following tests have to be prescribed:
- Hormone profile: FSH, LH, Testosterone, Thyroid profile, & Prolactin.
- Scrotal Doppler.
- Genetic Screening.
If all the above test are found to be normal, then we have number of treatment options like:
TESA/TESE (Testicular Sperm Aspiration/Extraction), PESA (Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration) and MESA (Micro-surgical Epididymal Sperm Aspiration) are infertility treatment which involves surgical retrieval of sperm from the male partner. This line of treatment is useful for couples with severe male infertility and involves collection of sperms from the testicles/epididymis using a needle or a small incision. Surgical sperm retrieval is beneficial in the following conditions:
- Obstructive Azoospermia – When sperm are being produced but there are problems with semen release due to an obstruction in the reproductive tract. This can be due to a blockage in the vas deferens (tubes that transport semen from testis to the ejaculatory duct), a genetic defect where the vas deferens from a previous surgery.
- Non-obstructive Azoospermia – When there is nil sperm or very low number of sperm due to problems with sperm production.
- For men with Retrograde Ejaculation – Where instead of being released out from the urethra the semen travels backward.
- For men who have/had a Vasectomy
- For men who have/had an Ejaculation problems (Aspermia).