Ovarian cyst

  • An ovarian cyst is a large fluid sac that can develop in an ovary. It can be simple, which means thin walled filled with fluid or can be complex that is may contain thick fluid, blood or solid areas.
  • Ovarian cyst is very common. Most women are unaware they are often without any symptom and disappear spontaneously with time. But some women may need surgery at some point in their lives.

SYMPTOMS:

  • They are often asymptomatic & found, incidentally during examination by Gynecologist.
  • Patient shows some symptoms like nausea, vomiting, pain in the abdomen, pelvis, lower back, thigh and unusual bleeding.

DIAGNOSIS:

  • Examination by a gynecologist.
  • A pelvic ultrasound or an MRI.

CAUSES:

  • Hormonal problem: Hormonal problems as seen in Polycystic Ovarian Disease.
  • Endometriosis: In women who have endometriosis they can develop a cyst filled with blood called endometrioma/ chocolate cyst.
  • Severe pelvic infections: In case of severe pelvic infections it can spread to the ovaries and fallopian tubes and cause cysts to form.
  • Not all ovarian cysts affect fertility. Some cysts that become very large and require treatment by surgery or medications can affect fertility. Polycystic ovaries and endometrioma are known to affect fertility.
  • Rarely ovarian cyst can be cancerous. The risk increases with age. Post-menopausal women with ovarian cysts have a higher risk of developing ovarian cancer.

TREATMENT:

  • The treatment option is dependent on the patient’s age, their fertility status, symptoms and how large the cyst is. Treatment can be conservative or medical in which patient is told to wait and watch as the majority of cysts disappear on their own.
  • In case of larger cysts or symptomatic like pain during periods or in cases of twisting of the ovary then surgical removal of the cyst is recommended. Complex cyst usually requires further evaluation and surgical may be needed.
  • As we know that all ovarian cysts do not cause infertility. Some cysts tend to go on their own and some can be managed through medications. But a cause like the polycystic ovary syndrome, endometrioma, and some ovarian tumor a patient should see a doctor sooner as it may reduce fertility if left untreated, in fact, a further plan of fertility treatment should be timely discussed.

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